Typologies of Terrorism and its Causes


Terrorist attacks aim to create chaos, mass casualties, or loss of vital resources that upsets the economy’s essential services. It can involve cyber-attacks or violence.

Terrorist attacks tend to happen near or around high-profile places or areas where large numbers of people are gathered, like military installations, government buildings, utility facilities, bus trains, as well as significant public occasions. Be aware of the surroundings and those who are around you.

Causes Of Terrorism

The causes of terrorism could be based on a number of things. Various reasons led the individual to be involved in terrorism. The drive of terrorism comes from these three primary factors, i.e., psychological, ideological, and strategic.

1.     Psychological Perspective

Individuals engaged in terrorism can perform such acts purely based on their personal reasons or psychological state of mind. Their motivation may be nothing more than hate or the desire for power. In this perspective, a Terrorist is interested in getting attention from others for their actions, rather than some grand ideological or strategic goal.

2.     Ideological Perspective

Ideology is the beliefs, values, and principles by which a group identifies its particular aims and goals. It may encompass religion or political philosophies and programs. However, ideology plays a vital role in forming violent extremist activities. The emergence of ideological terror is fostered by a lack of legitimacy and continuity in the political arena and a lack of integration of political life’s boundaries. The diversity of ethnicity amplifies this risk.

3.     Strategic Perspective

Most of the cases of terrorism have observed that the failure of the government drives a rage of anger in certain individuals. When people seek to redress their grievances through the government but fail to win the government’s attention to their plight, they may resort to violence. According to this viewpoint, terrorism is a logical analysis of the objectives of a group to gain victory. If victory seems unlikely using more traditional means of opposition, then one might calculate that terrorism is a better option.

Typologies of Terrorism

While there are many types of terrorism, it is difficult to categories them. The most common typologies of terrorism are based on political contexts and include special interest extremists, regional groups, and lone wolves. While it is helpful to understand these types of activities, it is essential to know that each has its characteristics and needs.

1.     Domestic terrorism

There are four primary types of terrorism. The most basic type is domestic. In other cases, terrorism has no specific purpose. It can take many forms, from disorientation and advertising to gangster and eco-terrorism. Some of these typologies have different dimensions. The aims of each of these categories can vary from local to international. But in general, a terrorist can have a specific intention.

2.     Traditional terrorism

Traditional terrorism’s objective is to attack the target of a nation. It is imperative to know the causes of terrorism and the victims of a terrorist attack. It is important to understand that terrorists have a common goal. However, this is not always the case.

Though many people consider the concept of terrorism to be a helpful tool for identifying a problem, it still lacks a systematic approach. The term is not necessarily a typology but a group. If you are a victim of a terrorist act, you should consider the victims of the attack and the ones at risk of the consequences.

3.     International terrorism

The fourth type, state crime, is a form of international terrorism. The first one, however, is not a terrorist organization. The third type, anti-state terrorism, is international terrorism. The organizational group works on an international level and has a united goal: anything. These large organizations have a tremendous amount of power sometimes over the government of a certain country.

Target / Victim

Another critical point to consider when defining terrorism is the target. While there is a lot of overlap between types of terrorism, there are differences in the target audience. For example, if the attack is aimed at an American citizen, the audience of the attack will be local. For an act of terrorism to be successful, the attacker must target a foreign government. Moreover, the audience will not be local, meaning that the perpetrator may be an individual.

When determining the Target, it is helpful to look at the actor. The actor is an indirect measure of the type of threat. The actor may be an individual or a group. This classification allows you to understand better the nature of the threat posed by a terrorist. A terrorist who aims to sabotage a target will often be a state. This means that terrorists who target a specific area will likely be a government.


It’s not easy to define why terrorism is a problem with absolute certainty. The mental state will undoubtedly play a part, but how much is unclear. Certain individuals may be drawn to terrorism not because they desire violence but to advance their ideologies. Others might be motivated to commit terrorism simply because they believe it is a practical strategic option or could help the state’s goals. Terrorism may simultaneously occur due to psychological, ideological, and even strategic reasons. One could decide that the concept of terrorism is compatible with his personal view of the world and that it is logical. A group could decide to employ terrorism because it is a part of and is backed by their beliefs. In addition, individuals or groups could use terrorism because it aligns with their strategic goals and objectives.

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